An overview of Brussels institutions
The Brussels Region has had its own specific existence and institutions since 1989. Following the State reform of 1980-1989, Brussels institutions have their own legal personality and competences:
Regional competences are exercised by the institutions of the Brussels-Capital Region
Community competences are exercised in Brussels by, on the one hand, the French and Flemish Communities and, on the other hand, by the three Community Commissions (GGC/CCC, COCOF and VGC).
Each Brussels institution has a legislative and executive body and an administration:
These four institutions are interlinked at political level, in that the same members of parliament and ministers are found in the different institutions. This interlinking is clearly illustrated in this diagram.
- The parliaments are composed of the members of parliament forming the two linguistic groups. The parliaments of the COCOF and the VGC are composed respectively of the French-language and Dutch-language groups of the Brussels parliament. The Joint Assembly of the GGC/CCC is composed of the 89 members of the Brussels parliament belonging to the two linguistic groups.
- The government of the Brussels-Capital Region is composed of minsters and secretaries of state. The colleges of the COCOF and the VGC are composed respectively of the members of the government of the Brussels-Capital Region (ministers) and regional secretaries of state belonging respectively to the French-speaking and Dutch-speaking linguistic groups. The Joint college of the COCOM is composed of the members of the Region's government (ministers) and is chaired by the Minister-President of the government, who has only an advisory role.
The institutions operate separately, however, as regards their administration.
- Each institution has its own budget and its own administration.
The normative instruments of the Brussels institutions are as follows:
The Brussels parliament enacts its own legislation by way of orders
The COCOM also has legislative competence and enacts its own orders
The COCOF can, since 1st January 1994, act autonomously in a certain number of areas (that is to say the matters which were transferred to it by the French Community, among others a large part of health policy and personal welfare services) and can enact legislation in the form of decrees
Each of the three Community Commissions has organisational powers (setting up institutions and taking initiatives or financing them). Each parliament can adopt regulations to implement these competences, with the colleges implementing the said regulations by way of decrees.